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Developing a New Region-Specific Preference-Based Measure in East and Southeast Asia

Posted on
25 May 2023
  • Almost all preference-based measures (PBMs) were developed in Western countries. No major PBM has been developed in non-Western countries, including East and Southeast Asian countries. A new PBM, “Asia PBM 7 dimensions” (AP-7D), was designed by concept elicitation and item selection using interview surveys. The survey included a sample of 225 East and Southeast Asian people and qualitative analysis.

  • The AP-7D includes the following 7 items: pain, mental health, energy, mobility, work or school, interpersonal interactions, and burden to others, which are the most bothersome symptoms and the most important health-related impacts revealed by our interview surveys.

  • The scores measured using the AP-7D based on Asian people’s concepts may reflect the truer preference of East and Southeast Asians.


Almost all preference-based measures (PBMs) have been developed in Western countries, with none having been formulated in Asian countries. In this study, we construct a new generic PBM based on concept elicitation using interview surveys in East and Southeast Asian countries and qualitative analysis.


This cross-sectional study included 225 adults recruited from 9 East and Southeast Asian countries or regions (Indonesia, Japan, Korea, mainland China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand). Trained interviewers conducted semistructured interviews with 25 participants from the general population of each country/region. Qualitative data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The selection of items was determined based on interview surveys and team member discussions. The description of items was considered based on a detailed qualitative analysis of the interview survey.


A new region-specific PBM—the Asia PBM 7 dimensions instrument—was designed. It reflects East and Southeast Asian values and comprises 7 items: pain, mental health, energy, mobility, work/school, interpersonal interactions, and burden to others.


The new region-specific instrument is one of the first PBMs developed in the context of non-Western countries. The Asia PBM 7 dimensions contains 7 items that address the core concepts of health-related quality of life that are deemed important based on East and Southeast Asian health concepts.

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